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Dr. Arnd Bernaerts

Author in Climate Change Matters – Oceans Govern Climate

http://1ocean-1climate.com/



XXXXXXXInXXXXXX

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The entire book
in PDF
pages 108

CONTENTS

Chapter A. How to change Climate...................1

Adolf Hitler started World War II in September 1939, and initiated the longest and biggest climate change of the last century. This book is about oceans, wars at sea and climate changes. It focuses on two major climate changes, which happened because man abused oceans through naval warfare two times during the last century.

Chapter B. Arctic winter 1939/40............
.....9 to  27

-----27 to 39

The severe winter period in North Europe lasted from mid-December 1939 until April 1940. It was the coldest for more than 100 years. Allowing navies to participate in a war at sea, in Northern Europe natural heat reservoir, is like hastily stirring a hot soup to cool it down for quick consumption. Oncethe heat storage of North Sea and Baltic Seas has been diminished, water will warm again only during the next year summer.

Chapter C. The three years cold package & the war ..40

The statistics for the war winter temperatures between 1939and 1942 is nothing less than a “Big Bang”. In five out of six locations nothing comparable has ever happened since temperature observations have been made

Chapter D. 20th Century Climate changed by the Naval War ........63

The chapter will focus on the warming trend (1918-1939) and on the cooling trend (1939-1980). Naval war and supply across the seas became part of ocean physics for a long  time. Correspondingly climatic changes during WWII have two distinct periods, namely the period before Pearl Harbour and the period thereafter. From September 1939 until early 1942, naval warfare was largely confined to European waters, than war at sea became a global matter.

 Chapter E. Climate changes today ....87

The book shows that the war activities on sea during WWI and WWII correlate perfectly with the only two significant cli
matic changes between 1900 and 2000. The first one started in 1918 and lasted until 1939, while the second started in the winter of 1939/40 and came to an end in the early 1980s. The temperature rise during the recent 25 years can have “new causes”, but it might as well be a resume of the steep temperature rise between 1918 and 1939, interrupted by WWII


 The 108 page book in PDF


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Title: Booklet on Naval War changes Climate

  Subtitle: A fascinating theory on the impact of naval warfare on climate

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9780595413010

6x9 Perfect Bound Softcover

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http://1ocean-1climate.com/

EXTRACT from page 88 to 90
Final Chapter E

The 20th century climatic changes

After the end of the Little Ice Age (in the middle of 19th century, around 1850), global temperature started to rise, the main reason of this phenomenon being the decrease of the volcanic activities. But naval war interrupted a steady warming trend two times yet.

World War I ended with a severe “bang” in the late 1918.

There is nothing clearer than the beginning of a “big warming” that occurred concomitantly with the end of WWI, in November 1918.
              During WWI, naval war was fought around Britain and in the North and Baltic Seas. It actually started seriously only in the autumn of 1916 when new naval weaponry became fully available and devastatingly effective (particularly sub-marines (U-boats), depth charges, and sea mines). During the war year 1917, German U-boats alone sank ships with a total tonnage of 6,200,000. The war total loss was of 12 million tons: 5200 ships and about 650 naval vessels. Most merchant vessels had been fully loaded with cargoes of all kind, from grain, ore, coal, crude oil to whatever the war parties needed. All that stuff polluted the sea and was taken away by the Gulf Current or by the Norwegian Current up to the North. It was precisely there that the “big warming” occurred. At Spitsbergen, the winter temperatures jumped up by 8C in only a few years. Suddenly, the Northern Hemisphere became significantly warmer. The terms like “Greening of Greenland” or “Warming of Europe” became common expressions.

World War II (1939–1941)

 In the autumn of 1939, the naval warfare ended within four war months which reversed the two decade warming trend and determined the cooling phenomenon which started with three extreme war winters in Northern Europe and which lasted four decades, until 1980.

If the war in Europe had ended with the winter of 1939/40, a few weeks after Herman Goering’s speech (in mid-February 1940), the description of the winter of 1939/40 as “weather modification” would have probably been correct. The extremely icy January and February 1940 would have ‘submerged’ in weather statistics.

But this didn’t happen. The war went on and the war winter of 1940/41 came up in Northern Europe with the same climatic conditions as the year before. The same phenomenon occurred again during the winter of 1941/42, when Germany was at war with Russia (since July 1941), the Baltic Sea became arctic and the temperature was colder than if they were at the North Pole.

World War II (1941–1945)

World War II (1941–1945) saw naval war spreading at a global level and the global weather cooling down for four decades. After having gone through three chilling war winters in Europe (1939-1942), world community was ready to go through an even bigger climate experiment. With Japan’s ambush at Pearl Harbor with dozens of ships and hundreds of bomber air planes, on the 7th of December 1941, a new chapter of anthropogenic climate change started and was going to last for about four to five years, until most of the sea mine fields had been eliminated (1946/47). Mission was soon accomplished. Climate changed very pronouncedly to a colder status which lasted until about 1980.

“Global Warming” continued after 1980?

 The fact is that there was a strong warming between 1918 and 1939, which was interrupted for four decades by the naval war and then re-emerged in the early 1980. At this point, one can guess whether we can talk about a new cause or it is just the follow-up of the interrupted WWI-warming trend of 1918-1939.

Causes of the climate change (the 19th century)
cont.// p.90-97

The CHAPTER E  - Page 87 to 97

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 Booklet on Naval War changes Climate

 The British Prime Minister Tony Blair declared recently that there was no bigger long-term question facing the global community than the threat of a climate change due to man-made greenhouse gases. Unfortunately, the focus is misplaced. It is not the atmosphere which determines the fate of the climate. It is the ocean which does it.

Naval warfare during the two World Wars determined two major climate changes: a sustained warming which started at the end of World War I and lasted 20 years, and the next climatic shift which started during the winter 1939/40 and caused a four-decades global cooling. The extensive fighting at sea was a real threat for the normal course of the climate.

How could the course of international conflicts have been managed if the world's leading statesmen of the 20th century had been concerned with the climatic changes due to the impact that a war at sea could have had on the ocean and on the climate? Would Adolf Hitler have reconsidered his war aims in the summer of 1939 if the United States had warned him of their immediate implication in the looming war in case his decision would bring 1000 naval ships out on sea, thus generating a substantial climatic shift?

The naval war thesis is an intriguing contribution to the 'global warming issue' and has the potential of revolutionizing the current climate change debate.






 
NOTE
Preparing and publishing of this web-site became necessary when WIKIPEDIA
deleted the  Biography
__1st online 2013-Dec. 2015;
__2nd online Jan--Apr. 2016
More Info
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Extract from the 1st book page

Chapter A. How to change Climate

Do you want to have a freezing winter? Start a war at sea!

Do you want to change global climate? Start a global naval war!

One cold wave after the other took hold of Northern Europe in what was called an arctic climate, since mid-December 1939. Nothing similar has happened in more than 100 years. Only three months earlier, more than 1000 naval vessels went out on sea and turned the waters of the North- and Baltic Sea upside-down. Day and night, week after week, many thousands of ships criss-crossed these seas, millions of “sea fountains” sprang up, being caused by shells, bombs, depth charges, sea mines, torpedoes. Ships and airplanes sank to the sea bottom with hundreds.

 

By mid-February 1940, The New York Times (NYT, the 14th of February 1940) reported another arctic cold wave:

 

Europe suffered tonight in the paralysing grip of the bitterest cold in more than 100 years”.

“At least 56 people died from Scandinavia to the Danube”.

“The cold wave extended from the Arctic fringes of Norway and Finland to the Netherlands and Hungary”.

“The Netherlands Weather Bureau recorded the lowest temperature ever recorded in this country, 11.2 degrees below zero Fahrenheit” (-11.2 F corresponds to -24C).

“Water transportation in the Netherlands is completely paralysed. The canals have been covered with thick ice for more than six weeks. Hundreds of persons abandoned their homes in the face of crushing ice packs boiling up from ice-blocked canals, rivers and seas”.

“In Copenhagen the temperature has dropped to 13 degrees below zero Fahrenheit (-25C)”.

“The Baltic Sea was frozen over for the first time in many years. Islands along the coast of the Netherlands and the Baltic were isolated. All day they sent out SOS calls for coal and foodstuff”.

“In Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, more than 10,000 persons suffered severe cases of frost-bite. At least five persons froze to death in the three Baltic countries where temperatures reached -54 degrees below zero Fahrenheit (-47C) for the first time in 150 years”.

 The unusually pronounced cold winter in Northern Europe went on for many weeks. In Sweden, all cold records were broken during the 19th/20th of February, with 32 degrees below zero F (-35.5C), the coldest temperature since 1805 (NYT, the 23rd of February 1940).

The full chapter






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