B/W Edition in
Arctic Heats Up.
Spitsbergen 1919 to 1939
Ca.116 pages and 100 b/w figures. More details in right column.
The Book in PDF (color ed.)
Arctic Heats Up
The ice in the polar region is melting away at an unprecedented speed
during the last decade. Is the Arctic screaming? Is a tipping point reached? Is
the ice melting apocalyptic? Indeed, during the last 150 years the sea ice
retreat has never been as severe as in recent years. But, what is the cause?
Was the current warming set in motion by the early Arctic warming which started
since the late 1910s, and lasted from 1919 to 1939? The book will provide
astonishing, but important answers.
Actually, the extraordinary warming in the polar region, since 1919, was
not an Arctic, but a Spitsbergen warming. The study shows that it is possible
to set with precision the location and timing of the warming. Available
information of the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, North Europe, and Russia
are analyzed in order to establish with accuracy, where and when the warming
appeared, and by which magnitude. After all, the warming lasted for two decades
and was in 1938 as high as currently. Thus, the investigation provides a unique
picture on the knowledge about the Arctic impact on the climate.
Proper understanding of the early Arctic warming is not only a precondition
to understand the reasons for the decreasing ice cover today, but to discuss
the “why” of the previous event. At that time, precisely November 1918, World
War I ended. For four years Europe was pound and shaken. The circumstances
allow claiming an evident correlation between the naval war in Western Europe
and the sudden warming at Spitsbergen.
This work elaborates historical and resent research papers comprehensively
and discusses them in such detail that seems no longer possible to assume that
the earlier Arctic warming is due to “natural variability”. Calling the ice
melting an: “Apocalypse Now”, should be met with reservation, as long as the
first Arctic warming from 1919 to 1939 is not thoroughly understood. With the
material and information presented, the climate change debate will be enhanced
with astonishing new aspects.
Reviewing the past to understand the future -An Introduction
A. Arctic Warming - What Warming?
that the summer of 2007 was apocalyptic for Arctic sea ice has recently gone
around the globe, because the coverage and thickness of the sea ice in the
Arctic has been declining steadily over the past few decades . For many scientists this
situation appears to be related to global warming (Broennimann, 2008). In 2003 a
USA research center formulated it this way already: "Recent warming of
Arctic may affect worldwide climate" Not everyone agreed but
quarrel: What Arctic Warming?
there is hardly a convincing reason to neglect the recent warming in the Arctic
and the extent of ice melt during the summer season, it is not necessarily
clear yet, whether the current discussion is based on a sound and comprehensive
assessment. Climate research should not only deal with Arctic warming based on
observations made during the last few decades, but at least be extremely
interested in other climatic events that occurred in modern times, especially
if somehow in connection with the situation in the Arctic. Why?
Book Table of CONTENTS
THE PAST TO UNDERSTAND THE FUTURE - AN INTRODUCTION
ARCTIC IN CLIMATOLOGY
IMPACT OF THE SPITSBERG WARMING
WARMING EVENT IN DETAILS
IS THE AGITATION IN THE ARCTIC EXPLAINED?
DID THE EARLY ARCTIC WARMING ORIGINATE?
NAVAL WAR THE ARCTIC WARMING?
How Spitsbergen Heats the World
The Arctic Warming 1919-1939
Ca. 116 pages and 100 color
figures. Details see column.
The Book in PDF
To many climate scientists the Arctic warming remains "one of the
most puzzling climate anomalies of the 20th century"
(Bengtsson, 2004). Yet, the phenomenon discussed here is not as puzzling as
claimed. This investigation could establish that only the seas in the realm of
Spitsbergen could have generated the sudden increase of the observed
air-temperatures, and indicate the precise time period, namely the winter of
1918/19. This timing stands in extremely close relation with the naval war
activities in Europe.
Ninety years have passed since the most pronounce and sudden climatic shift
has occurred. The 'when' and 'where' had been the main task of the
investigation. Although the scientists of the pre-WWII generation started only
10 years after the Arctic warming commenced, their one decade long elaborations
was in no way less to the point than much more recent investigation. If WWII
had not ended this attention, the 1930s generation might have explained the
early Arctic warming since long.
It came differently. On the warming period followed an almost four decade
long cooling. In so far it could serve as excuse for showing little interest in
the pre WWII warming. But the trend altered direction again. At the change of
the millennium the Arctic temperatures were as high as in the late 1930s.
Latest when the warming returned in the 1980s it was high time to investigate
and explain the previous warming since the late 1910s. That was 30 years ago. But
nothing has been done. Many hundred papers were published, but the
"climatic revolution" (Ahlmann, 1946) and what made it happen had not
been regarded as worth to receive the required attention.
Instead of explaining the first warming that happened under the eyes and
observations of modern science, the issue is pushed aside by claiming
"natural variability". That is a non explanation. It generates a
wrong impression. If a hurricane destroys New Orleans, it was a hurricane that
destroyed the city and not "natural variability". If a tsunami sinks
dozen of ships, a tsunami sank the ships. If the West Spitsbergen Current
warmed the Arctic, than it was a branch of the Gulf Current that increased the
Arctic temperatures. It was therefore necessary to establish to the point, that
the warming started at Spitsbergen in winter 1918/19, that this even affected
the temperatures in Greenland from ca. 1920 to 1933, and in the East of
Spitsbergen the warming lasted until the early 1940s. Concerning Europe there
was a warming over two decades from ca. 1920 to 1940, but this warming was
presumably not generated alone from the Arctic region, but has had a regional
or continental component as well. Current Arctic research should understand
what had caused the Big Spitsbergen warming early last century.
The investigation could furthermore demonstrate that there is a high
possibility of a connection between the Arctic warming and the naval war in
Europe from 1914 to 1918, due to the fact that the seawater current system had
carried all the war torn sea water literally into the front garden of the
Spitsbergen. Had the naval war of WWI occurred in the sea area of Spitsbergen
at a similar magnitude as around Great Britain during the war, presumably no
one would have ever questioned the interconnection between the Arctic Warming
and the naval war.